Permanent mold (gravity die casting), like die casting, is suited to high-volume production. Permanent mold castings typically are larger than die castings. Maximum weight of permanent mold castings usually is about 10 kg, but much larger castings sometimes are made when costs of tooling and casting equipment are justified by the quality required for the casting.
Permanent mold castings are gravity-fed and pouring rate is relatively low, but the metal mold produces rapid solidification. Permanent mold castings exhibit excellent mechanical properties. Castings are generally sound, provided that the alloys used exhibit good fluidity and resistance to hot tearing.
Mechanical properties of permanent mold castings can be further improved by heat treatment. If maximum properties are required, the heat treatment consists of a solution treatment at high temperature followed by a quench and then natural or artificial aging. For small castings in which the cooling rate in the mold is very rapid or for less critical parts, the solution treatment and quench may be eliminated and the fast cooling in the mold relied on to retain in solution the compounds that will produce age hardening.
For hot chamber process the pressure chamber is connected to the die cavity is immersed permanently in the molten metal. The inlet port of the pressurizing cylinder is uncovered as the plunger moves to the open (unpressurized) position. This allows a new charge of molten metal to fill the cavity and thus can fill the cavity faster than the cold chamber process. The hot chamber process is used for metals of low melting point and high fluidity such as tin, zinc, and lead that tend not to alloy easily with steel at their melt temperatures. Such as Zinc Die castings, Copper Die castings we offer.
Some common aluminium permanent mold casting alloys, and typical products cast from them, are presented below.
* Alloy 366.0 – Automotive pistons
* Alloys 355.0, C355.0, A357.0 – Timing gears, impellers, compressors, and aircraft and missile components requiring high strength
* Alloys 356.0, A356.0 – Machine tool parts, aircraft wheels, pump parts, marine hardware, valve bodies, also can be heat-treated as T6, T651.
* Other aluminium alloys commonly used for permanent mold castings include 296.0, 319.0, and 333.0.
* Some Zinc Die casting, and copper alloy castings